The vegetation of herbaceous plants is produced entirely through primary growth, in which all tissues arise from the apical meristems, or buds, at the tips of the stems. In contrast, woody plants exhibit secondary growth both above and below ground. It is important to note that wood is the production of concentric layers of secondary xylem.
|Are bamboos, perennial herbs or trees? Photo by Alain Van den Hende,|
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Many botanists would consider that too picky, and would use the term "woody" in a broader sense to refer to the dense wood-like tissues of palms. And there are a few monocots, such as the dragon trees, giant aloes and some dracaenas, that have a specialized form of secondary growth, but such growth adds only layers of fibers and vascular bundles, not layers of secondary xylem.
Even if we accept that palms and other giant monocots are trees, there are still many gray areas where one is not quite sure where herbaceous perennials end and trees begin, and so there is value in pointing out the distinction between the very different ways that monocots and dicots form tree-like growth forms (see The invention and reinvention of trees).
Monocots abandoned the ability to form true wood as their ancestors adapted to a growth form based on rhizomes, with leaves that elongate from the base, and short-lived upright reproductive shoots (see How the grass leaf got its stripes). Leaves of monocots, which can be relatively large, are heavily dependent on bundles of fibers for support against both gravity and wind, as well as sometimes for protection against herbivores. As they spread to a wide variety of habitats, some monocots got larger and developed upright stems with increased density of supporting fibers. Important commercial fibers come from a variety of monocots, including Manila hemp (from a type of banana), sisal (from a species of Agave), and New Zealand hemp (from Phormium). Fiber can also be teased our of bamboo stems and the leaves, stems, and fruits of many palms.
Tropical monocots tend to be evergreen, another way they differ from temperate herbs. Banana plants, which are tree-like, but clearly herbaceous, remain above ground for several years. Others, such as agaves, aloes, and birds-of-paradise have permanent tufts or rosettes of above-ground foliage, typically arising from underground rhizomes. No one would confuse such plants with woody shrubs, and these must be considered perennial herbs. Other monocots, including many grasses (e.g. canes) have upright stems that are reinforced with fibers and may last for several years. Bamboos are giant grasses with sturdy upright stems that live for many years (see The grasses that would be trees). Should they be called herbs or woody plants? Neither, actually.