Wednesday, March 7, 2018

Mosses of Central Florida 52. Fontinalis sullivantii

Fontinalis sullivantii Lindberg (Fontinalaceae) is a straggling moss often found in water, but also on soil or tree bases in moist areas.  Leaves are spread primarily on two sides of the stem. Note all photos are of other species, provided to illustrate the general characteristics of the genus.

Fontinalis antipyretica, showing aquatic habitat.
Photo by Bernd Haynold, Creative Commons license,
posted on Wikimedia Commons
The stiff leaves lack a midrib, and the cells are worm-like, but plump, and densely filled with chloroplasts. A few cells at the base of the leaf are larger, more squarish, and clear.

Spore capsules appear along the stem and are nestled within a cluster of specialized leaves, lacking an elongate stalk.
The flattened leafy shoots of Fontinalis sullivantii.  Photo by
Kurt Stuber, Creative Commons license, posted on Wikimedia
The leaf tip of Fontinalis squamosa, showing the curvy,
worm-like cells filled with chloroplasts. 
Photo by Hermann Schachner, public domain, posted on
Wikimedia Commons

This species occurs throughout eastern U.S. and northern Europe.
It is found in northern Florida down to Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties, though it has been sparsely collected.

Fontinalis may be confused with other aquatic mosses in Florida, but is distinguished from them by its lack of a midrib, the elongate, worm-like cells with thick walls, and the spore capsules that remain nestled within clusters of bract-like leaves.

Two other species have been collected sparsely in northern Florida: Fontinalis novae-anglae from the central Panhandle and possibly Orange County, and F. sphagnifolia, from central north Florida, with unconfirmed reports from Hillsborough and Polk Counties.  They differ in small, technical details.
The base of a leaf of Fontinalis antipyretica, showing larger,
clear, basal cells, captured nicely by Hermann Schachner, public
domain, posted on Wikimedia Commons.

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Mosses of Central Florida 51. Leucodon julaceus

Leucodon julaceus (Hedwig) Sullivant (Leucodontaceae) forms colonies of erect leafy shoots arising from a branching stem system on tree trunks, logs, rock, and soil.
Photo by Scott Schuette, copyright MBG, posted on
Tropicos,  available under a Creative Commons License.

Leaves are short and scale-like, with inrolled edges, evenly distributed around the stem, and  lack midribs. Leaf cells are roundish-angular and largely smooth, but with some papillae on cells near the tip. When dry, the leaves press against the stem, resembling a tiny juniper twig.

Spore capsules are erect and egg-shaped, on short stalks arising from among specialized long, sword-shaped bracts, usually near the tips of the leafy shoots.

This species is found throughout the eastern U.S. and southern Ontario, as well as in Mexico and the West Indies.   It is found in northern Florida south to Hillsborough and Manatee counties.

It is somewhat similar to Schwetschkiopsis fabronia, but the latter is confined more to the bases of trees, and the leaves are "bumpy" throughout due to the translucent cell wall projections at the ends of cells.  Clasmatodon parvulus and Papillaria nigrescens are also similar but their leaves have distinct midribs.
Photo by Gerritt Davidse, copyright MBG, posted on
Tropicos,  available under a Creative Commons License.

Thursday, March 1, 2018

Mosses of Central Florida 50. Cyrto-hypnum minutulum

Cyrto-hypnum minutulum (Hedwig) W. R. Buck & H. A. Crum (Thuidiaceae)
is a creeping, freely branching moss found on rotting logs, the bases of trees, and rocks.
A dried specimen identified as Cyrto-hypnum minutulum in
USF Herbarium (Griepenburg s.n., 4 Apr 1970, Highland
Hammock State Park)

The leaves are scale-like, with small roundish to squarish cells with multiple papillae on both sides.  As in other members of the Thuidiaceae, leaves on the main stem are larger than on the branches.  The midrib extends 2/3 to 3/4 of the leaf length. Spore capsules are asymmetrical and bent to the side.

The related genus Thuidium differs in that papillae are found only on the lower surface, and there is usually only one per cell.

This species is found throughout state but lacking in the southern Atlantic counties.  It is also found throughout eastern N. America, Europe, and south into South America. 

Also found in Florida, but very limited in distribution and distinguished on minor characteristics are:
C. involvens, southern Florida north to Volusia County, but with major gaps.
C. pygmaeum, 2 records: Jackson and Manatee counties
C. schistocalyx : Highlands, Miami-Dade counties

The species has previously been known as Hypnum minutulum or Thuidium minutulum.